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JBS - Journal of Buddhist Studies 

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Volume 02, Issue 02

December 2021

JBS has devoted much of its efforts to publishing independent scholarly treatises and expert research papers on Buddhism and other interdisciplinary religious studies. As reflected in our mission, our JBS scholars focus on the history, culture, archaeology, arts, philology, anthropology, sociology, theology, philosophy, practices, interreligious comparative studies, and other subjects related to Buddhism.

Black and White Star in Circle

From the Editor

Thich Giac Chinh

We are delighted to kick off the new year in 2022 with a special academic publication dedicated to applied research and social development in the field of Buddhism, especially within a multipolar and multicultural world.

THE MIND IN EARLY BUDDHISM: CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE NIKĀYAS
Thich Minh Thanh, Ph.D.

Philosophy of mind offers a theory of attribution to the mind, Buddhist philosophy of mind explains perceptions on mental phenomena. A rational, biochemical and spiritual exploration of Buddhist philosophy, the study contains spirituality and practical experience in this scholarly paper. It gives awareness so that you can bring yourself to your own right view.

THE CONCEPT OF BODHISATTAHOOD
Bhikkhunī Gioi Huong, Ph.D.

When, why and how did the concept of Bodhisattvahood (菩薩) originate in India in the context of the long and checkered history of Buddhism are some of the most-debated questions among the Buddhologists world over. Both Theravāda and Mahāyāna do, so far as the scriptural testimony is concerned, display their common acquaintance with the concept to the extent that one may easily be led to the belief that the idea was almost inseparable in what is now generally called the original, the earliest or the primitive Buddhism (源 始 佛 教). The idea does not seem to have been alien to the ancient tradition of the Theravādis, although tracing the concept of Bodhisattvahood from the fifth century AD back to the time of the Nikāya period would indicate, as one may opine, a gradual diminution of its scope.

A categorical answer to the question as to whether the Hinayānists borrowed the idea from the Mahāyānists depends much upon how far one is prepared to pursue his research in ancient sources of Buddhism. Emerging from the main trunk of the original teaching of the Master, different branches of the faith grew and flourished side by side, never drifting away from their indisputable heritage of the common tradition.

Location of Kapilavastu: Resolving Contradictory Descriptions found in Buddhist Scriptures
Ramakanta Mishra, Ph.D., Associate Professor

Buddhist Scriptures give two different descriptions about the location of Kapilavastu, the native place of Buddha. One description puts it near the Himalayas, while the other puts it in Mid-India. Whereas all the studies in the past assumed the former description to be true, the latter was never refuted. There was no way to reject one of them, and it remained an unsettled historical issue. This was resolved in this study by application of Geometry. The required information was gleaned from Buddhist scriptures and travel accounts of Chinese pilgrims. The results show that Kapilavastu was situated in South-Kośala region. This is interesting and important as it goes against the present belief that Buddha was born in Nepal.

Evolution of Tibetan Logic and Its Epistemic factors
Rituparna Ghosh, Ph.D.

Logic and Epistemology in Tibet known as Bho-ta Desh are profoundly rooted in Indian Mahāyāna Buddhist philosophy and it is no exaggeration that it occupies a distinctive position in the academic world. Tibet being one of the neighbouring countries which received Indian thoughts preserved the lost literature in translation. Specially, their preservation of all the major works on Buddhist Logic and Epistemology the most important contributions of the masters like Diṅnāga, Dharmakrīti and others along with commentaries is really of enormous value. Professor Hajime Nakamura spells out that, “The Tibetans translated a good number of Indian Buddhist works on logic (Nyāya). The Sde-dge edition of the Tibetan Tripiṭaka contains 66 works on Nyāya, some of which are quite voluminous. It is in remarkable contrast to the fact that the Chinese Tripiṭaka preserves only a few Nyāya texts, e.g., the Yin-mingchȇng-li-mȇn-lun (Nyāyamukha), the Yin-ming-ju-chȇng-li-lun (Nyāyaprabeśaka), all of which are simple textbooks. These Tibetan translations are indispensable for the study of Buddhist logic, in view of the fact that many Sanskrit originals are lost.”


 According to Tibetan scholar Van der Kuijp, Tibetan writers on the culture of predominantly Buddhist history of their country, divided the period of Buddhist texts and the Buddhist experience became translated into Tibetan into two divisions, the early propagation or snga-dar and the later one, phyi-dar. The interim is engaged by the activities of Glang-dar-ma and his cohorts who sometime during the first half of the ninth century had managed to all but exterminate institutional Buddhism from what was then known as Tibet.

The “O Path” – Living Peace and Compassion to Address Human Problems
Phe Bach, Ed.D., & W. Edward Bureau, Ph.D.

We believe that creating peaceful communities and acting cooperatively can help overcome our differences and disputes, whether those disputes are in local, national, or international communities. As global community members we must collaboratively address the pressing international problems of health, poverty, hunger, environment, and inequality - in all of its virulent forms.  Together we can create caring societies that seek the common good for all and that engender well-being, inclusivity, and harmony. 

Reflecting on his wisdom, we ask ourselves, “How can we come together to create hope and common good?” Certainly, we could speculate about and debate that endlessly, but the state of human affairs cries out for us to engage with each other in ways that transcend and transform societies’ and leaders’ typical linear and end-result driven ways – the ways of “humans doing.” The “O Path” offers us a process of becoming “humans being”, as we collectively act for peace and with compassion – both of which are fundamental to addressing our human crises.  

The O Path engenders equality in our roles and interactions. As such, it is contrary to the typical hierarchical models of organizations with leaders at the top and a flow of followers down a pyramid to the bottom. More a distributed leadership mode, the O Path creates microcosms of humans being and doing. While there are, indeed, things “to be done”, to transform human problems, individually and collectively, we need to nurture compassion and peace within ourselves and each other. The process of such nurturing for the common good is flowing and is at the heart of following the O Path, out of which manifests addressing our common problems.  

Buddhist missions: A feasibility survey for practical application
Thich Giac Chinh, Buddhist Missionary

The missionary or mission field are an aspect of service, the purpose of which is to spread the faith of religious to everyone and to everywhere. The missionary foundation in Buddhism is a discipline that has contributed to the work of making the light of service spread to serve.

In the specialized field of expertise for monks who have fully inherited the dharma, have the legality, wisdom and virtue to spread the light of Buddhism to the public.

This topic has been and is always a topical field, at any time in this world there is a multidimensional interaction, the field of Buddhist Mission still has a multidimensional value for the public.

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